Case Studies Addressing Human Pharmacokinetic Uncertainty Using a Combination of Pharmacokinetic Simulation and Alternative First-in-human

PF-184298 ((S)-2,3-dichloro-N-isobutyl-N-pyrrolidin-3-ylbenzamide) and PF-4776548 ((3-(4-fluoro-2-methoxy-benzyl)-7-hydroxy-8,9-dihydro-3H,7H-pyrrolo[2,3-c][1,7]naphthyridin-6-one)) are novel compounds which were selected to progress to human studies. Discordant human pharmacokinetic predictions arose from pre-clinical in vivo studies in rat and dog, and from human in vitro studies, resulting in a clearance prediction range of 3 to >20 mL min-1  kg-1 for PF-184298, and 5 to >20 mL min-1 kg-1 for PF-4776548. A package of work to investigate the discordance for PF-184298 is described. Although ultimately complementary to the human pharmacokinetic data in characterising the disposition of PF-184298 in humans, these data did not provide any further confidence in pharmacokinetic prediction. A fit for purpose human pharmacokinetic study was conducted for each compound, with an oral pharmacologically active dose for PF-184298, and an intravenous and oral microdose for PF-4776548. This provided a relatively low cost, clear decision making approach, resulting in the termination of PF-4776548 and further progression of PF-184298. A retrospective analysis of the data showed that, if the tools had been available at the time, the pharmacokinetics of PF-184298 in human could have been predicted from a population based simulation tool in combination with physicochemical properties and in vitro human intrinsic clearance.