Skip to main content

Proof of Concept in Assignment of Within-Subject Variability During Virtual Bioequivalence Studies: Propagation of Intra-Subject Variation in Gastrointestinal Physiology Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

While the concept of ‘Virtual Bioequivalence’ (VBE) using a combination of modelling, in vitro tests and integration of pre-existing data on systems and drugs is growing from its infancy, building confidence on VBE outcomes requires demonstration of its ability not only in predicting formulation-dependent systemic exposure but also the expected degree of population variability. The concept of variation influencing the outcome of BE, despite being hidden with the cross-over nature of common BE studies, becomes evident when dealing with the acceptance criteria that consider the 90% confidence interval (CI) around the relative bioavailability. Hence, clinical studies comparing a reference product against itself may fail due to within-subject variations associated with the two occasions that the individual receives the same formulation.