A mechanism-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed for exendin-4 to account for receptor-mediated endocytosis via glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) as the primary mechanism for its nonlinear disposition. Time profiles of exendin-4 concentrations after intravenous, subcutaneous, and continuous intravenous infusion doses in rats, intravenous and subcutaneous doses in monkeys, and intravenous infusion and subcutaneous doses in humans were examined. Mean data for glucose and insulin after glucose challenges during exendin-4 treatment in healthy rats were analyzed. The PK model components included receptor binding, subsequent internalization and degradation, nonspecific tissue distribution, and linear first-order elimination from plasma.
May 1, 2012