BMS-690514, a selective inhibitor of the ErbB and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, has shown antitumor activity in early clinical development. The compound is metabolized by multiple enzymes, with CYP3A4 responsible for the largest fraction (34%) of metabolism. It is also a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro. To assess the effect of ketoconazole on BMS-690514 pharmacokinetics, 17 healthy volunteers received 200 mg BMS-690514 alone followed by 100 mg BMS-690514 with ketoconazole (400 mg once daily for 4 days). The AUC∞ of 100 mg BMS-690514 concomitantly administered with ketoconazole was similar to that of 200 mg BMS-690514 alone. The dose-normalized Cmax and AUC∞ of BMS-690514 from the 100-mg BMS-690514/400-mg ketoconazole treatment increased by 55% and 127%, respectively, relative to those from 200 mg BMS-690514 alone. Prediction of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) using a population-based simulator (Simcyp®) indicated that, in addition to CYP3A4 inhibition, the inhibition of P-gp by ketoconazole in the intestine, liver, and kidneys must be invoked to fully account for the DDI observed. This finding suggests that the inhibition of P-gp by ketoconazole, along with its effect on CYP3A4, needs to be considered when designing a DDI study of ketoconazole with a victim drug that is a dual substrate.