Pharmacokinetic profile of defibrotide in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is an unpredictable, potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning. Severe VOD/SOS, generally associated with multiorgan dysfunction (pulmonary or renal dysfunction), may be associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide, recently approved in the US, has demonstrated efficacy treating hepatic VOD/SOS with multiorgan dysfunction. Because renal […]

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A Six-Stage Workflow for Robust Application of Systems Pharmacology

Quantitative and systems pharmacology (QSP) is increasingly being applied in pharmaceutical research and development. One factor critical to the ultimate success of QSP is the establishment of commonly accepted language, technical criteria, and workflows. We propose an integrated workflow that bridges conceptual objectives with underlying technical detail to support the execution, communication, and evaluation of […]

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A population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of repeated measures time-to-event pharmacodynamic responses: the antiemetic effect of ondansetron.

This paper presents and illustrates methodology for specifying, estimating, and evaluating a predictive model for repeated measures time-to-event responses. The illustrative example specifies a model of the antiemetic effect vs. concentration relationship for the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron in the human ipecac model for emesis. A key part of this model is a time-dependent log hazard […]

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Characterizing systemic exposure of inhaled drugs: application to the long-acting β2-agonist PF-00610355

PF-00610355 is an orally inhaled long-acting β2-adrenoreceptor agonist that is being developed for the once-daily treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pharmacological effect is exerted in the lungs. However, systemic exposure of PF-00610355 is expected to be responsible for certain drug-related adverse effects. This analysis characterizes PF-00610355 using an integrated analysis of systemic […]

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Using Model-based Meta-analysis to Improve Decision-making in Drug Development

Making the right choices in drug development often means the difference between getting a new medication to patients and it ending up in the scrap heap of failed programs. There is a surfeit of publicly available information on approved drugs as well as those currently in development. How can sponsors turn clinical trial data into understanding that helps chart the course for investigational drugs?

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Short-term efficacy reliably predicts long-term clinical benefit in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials as demonstrated by model-based meta-analysis

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between short-term and long-term treatment effects measured by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 50 responses and to assess the feasibility of predicting 6-month efficacy from short-term data. A rheumatoid arthritis (RA) database was constructed from 68 reported trials. We focused on the relationship between […]

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Clinical Trial Simulation to Inform Phase 2: Comparison of Concentrated vs. Distributed First-in-Patient Study Designs in Psoriasis

Clinical trial simulation (CTS) and model-based meta-analysis (MBMA) can increase our understanding of small, first-in-patient (FIP) trial design performance to inform Phase 2 decision making. In this work, we compared dose-ranging designs vs. designs testing only placebo and the maximum dose for early decision making in psoriasis. Based on MBMA of monoclonal antibodies in the […]

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Time course of bone mineral density changes with denosumab compared with other drugs in postmenopausal osteoporosis: a dose-response-based meta-analysis

Our objective was to compare the time course of bone mineral density (BMD) changes at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) in postmenopausal women during treatment with denosumab, bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, PTH, or calcitonin. Data were extracted from 142 randomized controlled trials for prevention or treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis representing over […]

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Model-based meta-analysis for comparative efficacy and safety: application in drug development and beyond

High development cost, low development success, cost-disciplined health-care policies, and intense competition demand an efficient drug development process. New compounds need to bring value to patients by being safe, efficacious, and cost-effective as compared with existing treatment options. Model-based meta-analysis (MBMA) facilitates integration and utilization of summary-level efficacy and safety data, providing a quantitative framework […]

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Detection of lymph node metastases by gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis

Gadolinium-based contrast agents are used with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to highlight tumor vascularity in organs. They are also widely used for primary tumor visualization. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing evidence of the accuracy of gadolinium-enhanced MRI for staging lymph node metastases. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane, CANCERLIT, and […]

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A dose-response meta-analysis for quantifying relative efficacy of biologics in rheumatoid arthritis

We present a dose-response meta-analysis to quantify relative efficacy of biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is a strong rationale for this analysis because, although multiple biologics are available, information on head-to-head comparisons is limited. Data on the percentage of patients attaining American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20, 50, […]

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Model-based covariate pharmacokinetic analysis and lack of cortisol suppression by the new inhaled corticosteroid ciclesonide using a novel cortisol release model

Ciclesonide is a novel and effective inhaled corticosteroid for the treatment of asthma that is converted into the active metabolite C21-desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC) in the lung. The objectives of this analysis were to characterize covariate effects on des-CIC pharmacokinetics (PK) and circadian cortisol release. In addition, the effect of systemic des-CIC exposure on circadian cortisol release […]

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More Power to OATP1B1: An Evaluation of Sample Size in Pharmacogenetic Studies Using a Rosuvastatin PBPK Model for Intestinal, Hepatic, and Renal Transporter-mediated Clearances

Rosuvastatin is a substrate of choice in clinical studies of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1- and OATP1B3-associated drug interactions; thus, understanding the effect of OATP1B1 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of rosuvastatin is crucial. Here, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was coupled with a power calculation algorithm to evaluate the influence of sample size on the ability to detect an […]

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Metformin and cimetidine: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling to investigate transporter mediated drug-drug interactions.

Metformin is used as a probe for OCT2 mediated transport when investigating possible DDIs with new chemical entities. The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to simulate the effects of OCT and MATE inhibition by cimetidine on metformin kinetics. PBPK models were developed, incorporating mechanistic kidney and […]

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Model Development and Trial Simulation Accelerates Clinical Development

Modeling strategy enabled sponsor to provide rational basis for Phase III dose selection and avoid additional dose-ranging study, saving 12 Months and $6 Million. A global pharmaceutical company was seeking to advance its drug candidate, indicated for the treatment of osteoporosis, into pivotal Phase III trials. Data from Phase I and II studies were available […]

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Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for a C.E.R.A. in Both ESA-Naive and ESA-Treated Chronic Kidney Disease Patients With Renal Anemia

This study aimed to develop a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for C.E.R.A., a continuous erythropoietin receptor activator. C.E.R.A. is administered via intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) routes once every 2 weeks (Q2W) or once every 4 weeks (Q4W), respectively, to correct or maintain hemoglobin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Pantoprazole in Paediatric Intensive Care Patients

What is already known about this subject The use of intravenous pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, has been increasing in the paediatric intensive care unit. Despite this increased use, data on the disposition of intravenous pantoprazole in paediatric intensive care patients are very scarce. What this study adds Our population approach has determined the pharmacokinetic […]

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Bottom-up modeling and simulation of tacrolimus clearance: prospective investigation of blood cell distribution, sex and CYP3A5 expression as covariates and assessment of study power.

The objectives were to investigate the ability of population-based in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) to reproduce the influence of haematocrit on the clearance of tacrolimus, observed previously, and to assess the power of clinical studies to detect the effects of covariates on the clearance of tacrolimus. A population-based pharmacokinetic simulator (Simcyp®) was used to simulate […]

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