Chemotherapy of Second Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis: Comparison between the Parenteral Diamidine DB829 and Its Oral Prodrug DB868 in Vervet Monkeys

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS]) of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines […]

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

Azithromycin’s extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects […]

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Pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in critically ill patients in Thailand

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in critically ill patients are difficult to predict due to complex pathophysiological changes. Vancomycin is an antibiotic commonly used to treat serious gram positive bacterial infections in critically ill patients and the treatment goal is to rapidly achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in […]

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Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach

BACKGROUND: Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood […]

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A study to examine the relationship between metritis severity and depletion of oxytetracycline in plasma and milk after intrauterine infusion

Metritis is a frequent problem in postpartum dairy cows. Intrauterine therapy with the antimicrobial oxytetracycline (OTC) is often used, although this therapy has not been shown to be superior to systemic therapy. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the plasma and milk concentrations of OTC following intrauterine infusion in postpartum dairy cows […]

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Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in adult horses

The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this […]

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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle

The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in […]

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Altered plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in cows affected with severe clinical mastitis

Mastitis is a frequent problem among dairy cows, reducing milk yield and increasing cull rates. Systemic therapy with the cephalosporin antimicrobial ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) may improve therapeutic outcomes, but the incidence of CEF violative residues has increased annually since 2011. One potential explanation is that disease status may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CEF. To […]

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Vaccination mitigates the impact of PRRSv infection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in pigs

The pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) were determined in pigs that were clinically healthy (n = 8), vaccinated with a Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus (PRRS MLV) (n = 10), challenged with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) VR-2385 (n = 10), or vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv […]

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Supporting Development of a New Antibacterial Drug

In recent years, proliferation of plasmids encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has fueled the rise of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Avibactam inhibits class A and C serine β-lactamases, including KPC carbapenemases. While avibactam itself is not bactericidal, it restores the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics, including ceftazidime, against ESBL-producing pathogens. The sponsor sought to combine avibactam […]

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Month 2 culture status and treatment duration as predictors of recurrence in pulmonary tuberculosis: model validation and update.

New regimens capable of shortening tuberculosis treatment without increasing the risk of recurrence are urgently needed. A 2013 meta-regression analysis, using data from trials published from 1973 to 1997 involving 7793 patients, identified 2-month sputum culture status and treatment duration as independent predictors of recurrence. The resulting model predicted that if a new 4-month regimen […]

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Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending doses of avibactam alone and in combination with ceftazidime in healthy male volunteers: results of two randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor effective against Ambler class A, C and some class D β-lactamases that is currently in clinical development in combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. It restores the in vitro activity of a range of β-lactams, including ceftazidime, against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens. Two phase I […]

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Effect of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics and safety of avibactam in healthy volunteers

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor currently being assessed in combination with ceftazidime, ceftaroline fosamil, and aztreonam. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of avibactam in healthy young (aged 18-45 years) and elderly (aged ≥65 years) volunteers of both sexes. This was a Phase I, open-label study […]

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Phase 1 Study Assessing the Pharmacokinetic Profile and Safety of Avibactam in Patients with Renal Impairment.

Avibactam is a non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use as a fixed-dose combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of certain serious Gram-negative infections. As avibactam is primarily excreted unchanged in the urine, renal impairment may affect its pharmacokinetics. This Phase 1 study investigated the effect of renal impairment and hemodialysis on avibactam pharmacokinetics and safety. […]

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Getting at the HAART of Precision Dosing: Using PBPK Models to Optimize Dosing of an Antiviral

Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. It is primarily metabolized by CY2B6. A standard dose of efavirenz has been associated with serious adverse reactions in poor metabolizers (PMs) of CYP2B6, necessitating a reduction […]

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