Phoenix WinNonlin

Phoenix WinNonlin is the industry standard for the analysis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics data. The integrated tools for data processing, non-compartmental analysis (NCA), PK/PD modeling, post-analysis statistics, table creation, and graphics create an all-in-one collaboration workbench for analysts, reviewers, medical writers, and quality assurance team members.

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Phenanthrene metabolism in smokers: use of a two-step diagnostic plot approach to identify subjects with extensive metabolic activation

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smoke are among the most likely causes of lung cancer. PAHs require metabolic activation to initiate the carcinogenic process. Phenanthrene (Phe), a noncarcinogenic PAH, was used as a surrogate of benzo[α]pyrene and related PAHs to study the metabolic activation of PAHs in smokers. A dose of 10 μg of deuterated Phe([D10]Phe) was administered […]

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In Vivo-Formed versus Preformed Metabolite Kinetics of trans-Resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-Resveratrol-3-glucuronide

Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) […]

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A pilot study assessing the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diazepam after intranasal and intravenous administration in healthy volunteers

Diazepam rectal gel (Diastat®) is the only FDA-approved product indicated for acute repetitive seizures. Despite its proven efficacy, most older children and adults object to this route of administration. As a result, many patients do not realize the benefit of a therapy that can improve outcomes and decrease healthcare costs. Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines offers […]

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Study reanalysis using a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of pramlintide in subjects with type 1 diabetes.

This report describes a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for pramlintide, an amylinomimetic, in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Plasma glucose and drug concentrations were obtained following bolus and 2-h intravenous infusions of pramlintide at three dose levels or placebo in 25 T1DM subjects during the postprandial period in a crossover study. The original clinical data were reanalyzed […]

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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of TBR-652, a Novel CCR5 Antagonist, in HIV-1-Infected, Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced and CCR5 Antagonist-Naive Patients

TBR-652 is a novel CCR5 antagonist with potent in vitro anti-HIV activity. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TBR-652 in HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral treatment-experienced, CCR5 antagonist-naive patients. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-escalating study of TBR-652 monotherapy given once daily orally for 10 days was performed followed by […]

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The role of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) in the distribution of sorafenib to the brain.

ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) have been shown to work in concert to restrict brain penetration of several tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It has been reported that P-gp is dominant in limiting transport of many dual P-gp/BCRP substrates across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study investigated the influence of P-gp […]

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Microdialysis evaluation of clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine pharmacokinetics in rat brain.

A significant barrier to realization of the full potential of clozapine as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of schizophrenia is the substantial interpatient variability that exists along the therapeutic continuum of no response-efficacious response-adverse response. Genetic polymorphisms that manifest as highly variable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic measures are its expected causes. To support investigations that […]

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Metabolism of [D10]phenanthrene to tetraols in smokers for potential lung cancer susceptibility assessment: comparison of oral and inhalation routes of administration.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be among the causative agents for lung cancer in smokers. PAHs require metabolic activation for carcinogenicity. One pathway produces diol epoxides that react with DNA, causing mutations. Because diol epoxides are converted to tetraols, quantitation of tetraols can potentially be used to identify smokers who may be at […]

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Brain extracellular γ-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are decreased by L-lactate in rats: role in the treatment of overdoses

L-lactate represents a potential treatment for GHB overdose by inhibiting GHB renal reabsorption mediated by monocarboxylate transporters. Our objective was to assess the dose-dependence of L-lactate treatment, with and without D-mannitol, on GHB toxicokinetics/toxicodynamics (TK/TD). Rats were administered GHB 600 mg/kg i.v. with L-lactate (low and high doses), D-mannitol, or L-lactate (low dose) with D-mannitol. GHB-induced […]

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Application of PBPK modeling to predict monoclonal antibody disposition in plasma and tissues in mouse models of human colorectal cancer.

This investigation evaluated the utility of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, which incorporates model parameters representing key determinants of monoclonal antibody (mAb) target-mediated disposition, to predict, a priori, mAb disposition in plasma and in tissues, including tumors that express target antigens. Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed to predict the disposition of two mAbs, 8C2 (as a non-binding control mouse IgG1 mAb) and T84.66 (a high-affinity murine IgG1 anti-carcinoembryonic antigen […]

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Application of knockout mouse models to investigate the influence of FcγR on the pharmacokinetics and anti-platelet effects of MWReg30, a monoclonal anti-GPIIb antibody.

This work evaluates the influence of FcγR on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a rat anti-integrin-αIIb IgG1 monoclonal antibody, MWReg30, in mice. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MWReg30 were investigated in C57BL/6 control mice, FcγRI/RIII knockout mice, and FcγRIIb knockout mice, following intravenous doses of 0.04-0.4mg/kg. MWReg30 treatment resulted in a dose-dependent induction of thrombocytopenia […]

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How to Use Phoenix RSABE templates

Traditional average bioequivalence (ABE) methodology requires prohibitively large sample sizes when used with highly variable drugs and drug products (HVDs/HVDPs), which are defined as products with intra-subject CV% of the reference greater than 30%. This increases the expense of BE studies, places more study subjects at risk, and ultimately limits the availability of generics. Reference-scaled […]

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