Supporting Development of a New Antibacterial Drug

In recent years, proliferation of plasmids encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) has fueled the rise of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. Avibactam inhibits class A and C serine β-lactamases, including KPC carbapenemases. While avibactam itself is not bactericidal, it restores the effectiveness of β-lactam antibiotics, including ceftazidime, against ESBL-producing pathogens. The sponsor sought to combine avibactam […]

Read More
Topics:

Month 2 culture status and treatment duration as predictors of recurrence in pulmonary tuberculosis: model validation and update.

New regimens capable of shortening tuberculosis treatment without increasing the risk of recurrence are urgently needed. A 2013 meta-regression analysis, using data from trials published from 1973 to 1997 involving 7793 patients, identified 2-month sputum culture status and treatment duration as independent predictors of recurrence. The resulting model predicted that if a new 4-month regimen […]

Read More
Topics:

Safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple ascending doses of avibactam alone and in combination with ceftazidime in healthy male volunteers: results of two randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor effective against Ambler class A, C and some class D β-lactamases that is currently in clinical development in combination with ceftazidime for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. It restores the in vitro activity of a range of β-lactams, including ceftazidime, against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing pathogens. Two phase I […]

Read More
Topics:

Effect of age and sex on the pharmacokinetics and safety of avibactam in healthy volunteers

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor currently being assessed in combination with ceftazidime, ceftaroline fosamil, and aztreonam. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of avibactam in healthy young (aged 18-45 years) and elderly (aged ≥65 years) volunteers of both sexes. This was a Phase I, open-label study […]

Read More
Topics:

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of axitinib in healthy volunteers.

Axitinib is a potent and selective second generation inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 approved for second line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. The objectives of this analysis were to assess plasma pharmacokinetics and identify covariates that may explain variability in axitinib disposition following single dose administration in healthy […]

Read More
Topics:

Axitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis.

Axitinib is a potent and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, approved for second-line therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Axitinib population pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships were evaluated. Using nonlinear mixed effects modeling with pooled data from 383 healthy volunteers, 181 patients with metastatic RCC, and 26 patients […]

Read More
Topics:

Onartuzumab with or without bevacizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel does not prolong QTc or adversely affect other ECG parameters in patients with locally recurrent or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of onartuzumab, when administered with or without bevacizumab in combination with weekly paclitaxel, on the corrected QT interval (QTc) and other electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters, was investigated in a randomized, phase 2 study OAM4861g of first- or second-line therapy in patients with locally recurrent or […]

Read More
Topics:

Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analyses from a 4-Month Intra–Dose Escalation and Its Subsequent 12-Month Dose Titration Studies for a Human Monoclonal Anti-FGF23 Antibody (KRN23) in Adults with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is an inherited metabolic bone disease with abnormally elevated serum FGF23 resulting in low renal maximum threshold for phosphate reabsorption, low serum phosphate (Pi) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with subsequent development of short stature and skeletal deformities. KRN23 is a novel human anti-FGF23 antibody for the treatment of XLH. The pharmacokinetics (PK) […]

Read More
Topics:

Population Pharmacokinetic Model for a Novel Oral Hypoglycemic Formed In Vivo: Comparing the Use of Active Metabolite Data Alone Versus Using Data of Upstream and Downstream Metabolites

The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for CS-917, an oral hypoglycemic prodrug, and its 3 metabolites. The population pharmacokinetic model was used to predict exposure of the active moiety R-125338 and thus to identify potential CS-917 dosage reduction criteria.

Read More
Topics:

Characterization of exposure versus response of edoxaban in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery.

Edoxaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Japan. The objectives of this analysis were to characterise the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of edoxaban and the relationships between edoxaban exposure and clinical outcomes in a phase IIb study of surgical patients following total hip replacement (THR). A […]

Read More
Topics:

Model-Based Prediction of Phase III Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer on the Basis of Phase II Tumor Dynamics

We developed a drug-disease simulation model to predict antitumor response and overall survival in phase III studies from longitudinal tumor size data in phase II trials. We developed a longitudinal exposure-response tumor-growth inhibition (TGI) model of drug effect (and resistance) using phase II data of capecitabine (n = 34) and historical phase III data of […]

Read More
Topics:

Temporal profile of lymphocyte counts and relationship with infections with fingolimod therapy

Reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes is an expected pharmacodynamic outcome of fingolimod therapy. The objective of this article is to evaluate lymphocyte dynamics during and after fingolimod therapy and assess the relationship between lymphocyte counts and infections. Lymphocyte counts and their relationship with infections were evaluated in three multiple sclerosis (MS) populations: (Group A) FREEDOMS […]

Read More
Topics:

Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Capsaicin After Topical Administration of a High-Concentration Capsaicin Patch to Patients With Peripheral Neuropathic Pain

Capsaicin, a pungent compound in chili peppers, is a highly selective agonist for the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor expressed in nociceptive sensory nerves. A high-concentration (640 μg/cm2) capsaicin patch, designated NGX-4010, is in clinical evaluation for the management of peripheral neuropathic pain. To determine systemic capsaicin exposure after single 60- or 90-minute NGX-4010 […]

Read More
Topics:

Activities of ceftazidime and avibactam against β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae in a hollow-fiber pharmacodynamic model

Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that is currently undergoing phase 3 clinical trials in combination with ceftazidime. Ceftazidime is hydrolyzed by a broad range of β-lactamases, but avibactam is able to inhibit the majority of these enzymes. The studies described here attempt to provide insight into the amount of avibactam required to suppress […]

Read More
Topics:

Population Pharmacokinetics of Vernakalant Hydrochloride Injection (RSD1235) in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation or Atrial Flutter

Vernakalant hydrochloride is a novel, predominantly atrial-selective antiarrhythmic drug that effectively and rapidly terminates atrial fibrillation (AF). Plasma vernakalant concentration data from 5 phase 2 and 3 clinical trials of vernakalant in patients with AF or atrial flutter and a phase 1 study in healthy volunteers were used to construct a population pharmacokinetic model

Read More
Topics:

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling to Determine the Human Dose of ST-246(R) to Protect Against Smallpox.

Although smallpox has been eradicated, the United States government considers it a “material threat” and has funded the discovery and development of potential therapeutic compounds. As reported here, the human efficacious dose for one of these compounds, ST-246, was determined using efficacy studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs), together with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis that predicted […]

Read More
Topics:

Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis of Vigabatrin in Adults and Children with Epilepsy and Children with Infantile Spasms.

Vigabatrin is an inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase. The purpose of these analyses was to develop a population pharmacokinetics model to characterize the vigabatrin concentration–time profile for adults and children with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS) and for children with infantile spasms (IS); to identify covariates that affect its disposition, and to enable predictions of […]

Read More
Topics:

On the Use of Change in Tumor Size to Predict Survival in Clinical Oncology Studies: Toward a New Paradigm to Design and Evaluate Phase II Studies

Drug-independent models that link biomarker response to clinical end points are critical to support early (end of phase II) clinical decisions. In oncology, change in tumor size (a biomarker of drug effect evaluated in phase II) is linked to survival (a phase III end point) in some solid tumors.

Read More
Topics:
Learn More
LinkedIn