Chemotherapy of Second Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis: Comparison between the Parenteral Diamidine DB829 and Its Oral Prodrug DB868 in Vervet Monkeys

Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness) ranks among the most neglected tropical diseases based on limited availability of drugs that are safe and efficacious, particularly against the second stage (central nervous system [CNS]) of infection. In response to this largely unmet need for new treatments, the Consortium for Parasitic Drug Development developed novel parenteral diamidines […]

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults

Azithromycin’s extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects […]

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Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Framework for Quantitative Prediction of an Herb–Drug Interaction

Herb–drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb–drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160 mg/day × 14 […]

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Pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in critically ill patients in Thailand

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in critically ill patients are difficult to predict due to complex pathophysiological changes. Vancomycin is an antibiotic commonly used to treat serious gram positive bacterial infections in critically ill patients and the treatment goal is to rapidly achieve and maintain therapeutic concentrations. We assessed the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in […]

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Estimation of tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk after subcutaneous injection in lactating goats using a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic modeling approach

BACKGROUND: Extra-label use of tulathromycin in lactating goats is common and may cause violative residues in milk. The objective of this study was to develop a nonlinear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic (NLME-PK) model to estimate tulathromycin depletion in plasma and milk of lactating goats. Eight lactating goats received two subcutaneous injections of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin 7 days apart; blood […]

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A study to examine the relationship between metritis severity and depletion of oxytetracycline in plasma and milk after intrauterine infusion

Metritis is a frequent problem in postpartum dairy cows. Intrauterine therapy with the antimicrobial oxytetracycline (OTC) is often used, although this therapy has not been shown to be superior to systemic therapy. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the plasma and milk concentrations of OTC following intrauterine infusion in postpartum dairy cows […]

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Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in adult horses

The primary study objective was to compare the pharmacokinetics of p.o. terbinafine alone to p.o. terbinafine administered with p.o. cimetidine in healthy adult horses. The second objective was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine when administered per rectum in two different suspensions at 30 mg/kg to adult horses. Six healthy adult horses were included in this […]

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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid in naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in multisource commingled feedlot cattle

The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether an association exists between individual pharmacokinetic parameters and treatment outcome when feeder cattle were diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and treated with gamithromycin (Zactran(®) ) at the label dose and (ii) whether there was a stronger association between treatment outcome and gamithromycin concentration in […]

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The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves

This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 […]

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Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose of Oral and Subcutaneous Meloxicam in Caribbean Flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber)

To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in Caribbean flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber), a pilot study was performed first, followed by a complete pharmacokinetic study. Four healthy birds were divided into 2 groups and administered 1 mg/kg of either oral (n = 2) or subcutaneous (n = 2) meloxicam. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined with […]

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Altered plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in cows affected with severe clinical mastitis

Mastitis is a frequent problem among dairy cows, reducing milk yield and increasing cull rates. Systemic therapy with the cephalosporin antimicrobial ceftiofur hydrochloride (CEF) may improve therapeutic outcomes, but the incidence of CEF violative residues has increased annually since 2011. One potential explanation is that disease status may alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of CEF. To […]

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Vaccination mitigates the impact of PRRSv infection on the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in pigs

The pharmacokinetics of intramuscularly administered ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) were determined in pigs that were clinically healthy (n = 8), vaccinated with a Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome modified live virus (PRRS MLV) (n = 10), challenged with wild-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) VR-2385 (n = 10), or vaccinated with PRRS MLV and later challenged with wild-type PRRSv […]

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Phoenix IVIVC Toolkit

The Phoenix IVIVC Toolkit provides enhanced tools for in vitro-in vivo correlation studies used by formulation and pharmaceutical scientists to improve the success of BE studies. The IVIVC Toolkit approach requires less assumptions, as compared to other methods, and helps the user define the correlation observed from real in vivo profiles as compared to the dissolution profiles.

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