Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of axitinib in healthy volunteers.

Axitinib (AG-013736), an oral, potent, and selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2, and 3, is metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A with minor contributions from CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and glucuronidation. Co-administration with CYP inhibitors may increase systemic exposure to axitinib and alter its safety profile. This study evaluated changes in axitinib plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and assessed safety and tolerability in healthy subjects, following axitinib co-administration with the potent CYP3A inhibitor

In this randomized, single-blind, two-way crossover study, 32 healthy volunteers received placebo, followed by a single 5-mg oral dose of axitinib, administered either alone or on the fourth day of dosing with oral ketoconazole (400 mg/day for 7 days).

Axitinib exposure was significantly increased in the presence of ketoconazole with a geometric mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of 2.06 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 1.84-2.30) and a geometric mean ratio for maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1.50 (90% CI: 1.33-1.70). For axitinib alone or with ketoconazole, Cmax occurred 1.5 and 2.0 h after dosing, respectively. Adverse events were predominantly mild; the most commonly reported treatment-related adverse events were headache and nausea.

Axitinib plasma exposures and peak concentrations were increased following concurrent administration of axitinib and ketoconazole in healthy volunteers. Axitinib alone and in combination with ketoconazole was well tolerated. These findings provide an upper exposure for expected axitinib plasma concentrations in the presence of potent metabolic inhibition.

Yazdi K. Pithavala, Warren Tong, Janessa Mount, Sadayappan V. Rahavendran, May Garrett, Brian Hee, Paulina Selaru, Nenad Sarapa, Karen J. Klamerus,
February 1, 2012
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