Potential Sources of Inter-subject Variability in Monoclonal Antibody Pharmacokinetics

Understanding inter-subject variability in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is important to ensure that all patients attain suitable drug exposure to achieve efficacy and avoid toxicity. Inter-subject variability in the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is generally moderate to high; however, the factors responsible for the high inter-subject variability have not been comprehensively reviewed. In […]

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Development of a Novel Multi-compartment Granuloma Model to Predict Local Drug Distribution and Its Impact on Pharmacodynamics and Disease Progression in Tuberculosis

Objectives: One of the hallmarks of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the formation of granulomas, heterogeneous lesions composed of macrophage and neutrophil rich peripheral regions and a necrotic core, in the lungs of the infected host. Anti-TB drugs must penetrate these lesions to exert their effects. This work aimed to extend a permeability-limited lung model [1] […]

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Prediction of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Efficacy of a Monoclonal Antibody, Using a Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic FcRn Model

Although advantages of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models (PBPK) are now well established, PBPK models that are linked to pharmacodynamic (PD) models to predict pharmacokinetics (PK), PD, and efficacy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in humans are uncommon. The aim of this study was to develop a PD model that could be linked to a physiologically based mechanistic FcRn model to predict PK, PD, and efficacy of efalizumab. The mechanistic FcRn model for mAbs with target-mediated drug disposition within […]

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Applications of Linking PBPK and PD Models to Predict the Impact of Genotypic Variability, Formulation Differences, Differences in Target Binding Capacity and Target Site Drug Concentrations on Drug Responses and Variability

This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and PD compared […]

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Application of a Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Model to Predict OATP1B1-related Variability in Pharmacodynamics of Rosuvastatin

Typically, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models use plasma concentration as the input that drives the PD model. However, interindividual variability in uptake transporter activity can lead to variable drug concentrations in plasma without discernible impact on the effect site organ concentration. A physiologically based PK/PD model for rosuvastatin was developed that linked the predicted liver concentration to the PD response model. The model was then applied to predict the effect of genotype-dependent uptake […]

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Incorporating Target Shedding into a Minimal PBPK-TMDD Model for Monoclonal Antibodies

Shedding of a pharmacological target from cells, giving rise to a soluble target that can also bind therapeutic proteins, is a common phenomenon. In this study, a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics of trastuzumab and the simultaneous binding of the compound to soluble (in blood and tissue interstitial space) and membrane-bound (in the tissue interstitial space) forms of […]

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