Development of a Novel Multi-compartment Granuloma Model to Predict Local Drug Distribution and Its Impact on Pharmacodynamics and Disease Progression in Tuberculosis

Objectives: One of the hallmarks of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the formation of granulomas, heterogeneous lesions composed of macrophage and neutrophil rich peripheral regions and a necrotic core, in the lungs of the infected host. Anti-TB drugs must penetrate these lesions to exert their effects. This work aimed to extend a permeability-limited lung model [1] […]

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Development of a Permeability-limited Model of the Human Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) to Integrate Known Physiological and Biological Knowledge: Estimating Time Varying CSF Drug Concentrations and Their Variability Using In Vitro Data

A 4-compartment permeability-limited brain (4Brain) model consisting of brain blood, brain mass, cranial and spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compartments has been developed and incorporated into a whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model within the Simcyp Simulator. The model assumptions, structure, governing equations and system parameters are described. The model in particular considers the anatomy and […]

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Development of a Multicompartment Permeability-limited Lung PBPK Model and Its Application in Predicting Pulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Antituberculosis Drugs

Achieving sufficient concentrations of antituberculosis (TB) drugs in pulmonary tissue at the optimum time is still a challenge in developing therapeutic regimens for TB. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model incorporating a multi-compartment permeability-limited lung model was developed and used to simulate plasma and pulmonary concentrations of seven drugs. Passive permeability of drugs within the lung was predicted using an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approach. Simulated epithelial lining fluid (ELF):plasma concentration ratios showed reasonable […]

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Applications of Linking PBPK and PD Models to Predict the Impact of Genotypic Variability, Formulation Differences, Differences in Target Binding Capacity and Target Site Drug Concentrations on Drug Responses and Variability

This study aimed to demonstrate the added value of integrating prior in vitro data and knowledge-rich physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with pharmacodynamics (PDs) models. Four distinct applications that were developed and tested are presented here. PBPK models were developed for metoprolol using different CYP2D6 genotypes based on in vitro data. Application of the models for prediction of phenotypic differences in the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and PD compared […]

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Accounting for Transporters in Renal Clearance: Towards a Mechanistic Kidney Model (Mech KiM)

The impact of transporters in modulating the disposition of drugs in the liver and their passage across the gut wall has received much more attention than their role in renal excretion, despite the fact that 25–30 % of drugs are cleared predominantly by renal clearance and renal transporters contribute significantly to this process. Thus there […]

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A Pregnancy Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic (p-PBPK) Model for Disposition of Drugs Metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6

Pregnant women are usually not part of the traditional drug development program. Pregnancy is associated with major biological and physiological changes that alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. Prediction of the changes to drug exposure in this group of patients may help to prevent under- or overtreatment. We have used a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic […]

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