Prediction of Drug-drug Interactions Arising From CYP3A Induction Using a Physiologically-based Dynamic Model

Using physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling, we predicted the magnitude of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) for studies with rifampicin and seven CYP3A4 probe substrates administered i.v. (10 studies) or orally (19 studies). The results showed a tendency to underpredict the DDI magnitude when the victim drug was administered orally. Possible sources of inaccuracy were investigated systematically to determine […]

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Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Abundance, but Not mRNA Expression, Correlates with Estron e-3-Sulfate Transport in Caco-2

Transporter mRNA and protein expression data are used to extrapolate in vitro transporter kinetics to in vivo drug disposition predictions. Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) possesses broad substrate specificity; therefore, understanding BCRP expression-activity relationships are necessary for the translation to in vivo. Bidirectional transport of estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S), a BCRP probe, was evaluated with respect to relative BCRP mRNA expression […]

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A Critical Evaluation of the Experimental Design of Studies of Mechanism-based Enzyme Inhibition, with Implications for In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation

The published literature on mechanism based inhibition (MBI) of CYPs was evaluated with respect to experimental design, methodology and data analysis. Significant variation was apparent in the dilution factor, ratio of preincubation to incubation times and probe substrate concentrations used, and there were some anomalies in the estimation of associated kinetic parameters (k(inact), K(I), r). […]

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In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part I—A Cross-laboratory Comparison of Transporter-protein Abundances and Relative Expression Factors in Human Intestine and Caco-2 Cells

Over the last 5 years the quantification of transporter-protein absolute abundances has dramatically increased in parallel to the expanded use of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) and physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK)-linked models, for decision-making in pharmaceutical company drug development pipelines and regulatory submissions. Although several research groups have developed laboratory-specific proteomic workflows, it is unclear if the large range of reported variability is founded […]

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In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part II—The Impact of Cross-laboratory Variations of Intestinal Transporter Relative Expression Factors on Predicted Drug Disposition

Relative expression factors (REFs) are used to scale in vitro transporter kinetic data via in vitro-in vivo extrapolation linked to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (IVIVE-PBPK) models to clinical observations. Primarily two techniques to quantify transporter protein expression are available, immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Literature-collated REFs ranged from 0.4 to 5.1 and 1.1 to 90 for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively. The impact of using human jejunum-Caco-2 REFs for P-gp (REFiP-gp) and BCRP (REFiBCRP), […]

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How LC-MS Proteomics Is Revolutionizing PBPK Modeling and Simulation

Drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters play an important role in hepatic drug metabolism and disposition and therefore have major implications on the fate of drugs in the human body. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported proteomic expression data for pharmacologically relevant enzymes and transporters providing rich data that can be used for simulation […]

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Incorporating In Vitro Information on Drug Metabolism into Clinical Trial Simulations to Assess the Effect of CYP2D6 Polymorphisms on Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Dextromethorphan as a Model Application

In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of clearance, embedded in a clinical trial simulation, was used to investigate differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan between CYP2D6 poor and extensive metabolizer phenotypes. Information on the genetic variation of CYP2D6, as well as the in vitro metabolism and pharmacodynamics of dextromethorphan and its active metabolite dextrorphan, was […]

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Interplay of Metabolism and Transport in Determining Oral Drug Absorption and Gut Wall Metabolism: A Simulation Assessment Using the “Advanced Dissolution, Absorption, Metabolism (ADAM)” Model

Bioavailability of orally administered drugs can be influenced by a number of factors including release from the formulation, dissolution, stability in the gastrointestinal (GI) environment, permeability through the gut wall and first-pass gut wall and hepatic metabolism. Although there are various enzymes in the gut wall which may contribute to gut first pass metabolism, Cytochrome […]

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Are Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic Models Reporting the Right Cmax? Central Venous Versus Peripheral Sampling Site

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can over-predict maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) following intravenous administration. A proposed explanation is that invariably PBPK models report the concentration in the central venous compartment, rather than the site where the samples are drawn. The purpose of this study was to identify and validate potential corrective models based on anatomy and physiology governing the blood supply at the site of sampling and incorporate them into a PBPK platform. Four models were […]

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